Overview of reported national policies and measures on climate change mitigation in Europe in 2019
The report highlights that the number of reported national policies and measures to reduce greenhouse gas emissions
increased by 27% between 2017 and 2019. This increase is consistent with the reported increase in emission savings expected by 2030; there is more and better information on national policies and measures in comparison with previous years, although quantitative information on the realised emission savings remains insufficiently reported. In 2019, most of the reported policies and measures are regulations or economic instruments, targeting energy supply or energy consumption (including for transport), and implemented in response to Union policy. More than 10 % are agricultural policies, although they are rarely quantified.
The report also presents countries’ national developments in reporting on policies and measures starting after 2017. In the Baltic Sea Region (BSR):
Denmark: only one measure to invest in infrastructure that will reduce transport emissions;
Estonia: 25 PaMs starting between 2018 and 2021, although so far the only policy implemented relates to road usage fees for heavy duty vehicles. 12 other transport PaMs are planned promoting fuel efficient and electric vehicles, rail infrastructure improvement, road usage fees and congestion charging. Some actions are also planned in the agricultural sector, such as reducing fertilizer use, biomethane recovery, improved soil and cropland management
Finland: 17 new planned PaMs for reducing emissions through fuel switching and renewable energy promotion in transport, heating, cooling and electricity. In the end of 2018 a bill to the parliament proposed to ban coal-fired power plants by 2029. New regulations are also planned for energy efficiency, including near-zero energy buildings, increase vehicle efficiency and modal shift, promotion of campaigns and public procurement rules
Germany: Several measures starting 2018 and later are extensions, prolongations, further developments and reforms of existing PaMs related to renewable energy, combine heat and power, financial supports to ambitious energy standards in new buildings and renovation. It is planned a energy efficiency obligation scheme as of 2021 for fuel and electricity consumption in residential buildings
Latvia: 14 PaMs from 2018 mostly related to agriculture-related emissions, including reduction of fertilizer use, biogas promotion, increase carbon stock in soils. District heating was regulated in 2018 with minimum energy efficiency requirements.
Lithuania: 28 new PaMs, mostly expected to start from 2021 and related to transport, agriculture and energy consumption in buildings. In transport the aim is mostly to reduce emission intensity through electrification of rail transport, promoting LNG, supporting eco-driving. In buildings near-zero approaches will be promoted as well as investments in energy efficiency improvements of public buildings. In agriculture the plan is to increase knowledge on advanced technologies and farming solutions to reduce emissions.
Poland: Further development of the Polish Nuclear Power Program, construction expected in 2033
Sweden: 10 PaMs starting in 2018, mostly related to the transport sector. The measures support electric cars, electric bicycles and scooters, tax on air travel and a bonus-malus system for new light vehicles